Rune Interpretations

The following information is primarily from the website and is based primarily on the writings of "The Leaves of Yggdrasil," by Freya Aswynn; "The Practical Guide to the Runes," by Lisa Peschel; "The Book of Runes," by Ralph Blum; "A Handbook of Rune Magic," by Edred Thorsson; and "Teutonic Magic," by Kveldulf Gundarsson

Here are interpretations for 25 runes:

FEUH - cattle; wealth

                          Upright Position - [Fire and Earth elements] Feuh
                          symbolizes one's mobile wealth and material gain. It's
                          traditional meaning of cattle, stems from how the primitive
                          Northern Europeans represented wealth. Feuh's influences
                          are positive and usually indicates prosperous opportunities
                          arriving or the ability for one to create prosperous
                          opportunities (Aswynn, 10).

                          Receiving Feuh is an indication that the material fulfillment
                          and satisfaction of what one has worked so hard to attain is
                          at hand. Enjoy the rewards this rune offers, while at the
                          same time, share with others, and give careful thought to
                          the new responsibilities involved.

                          If upright Feuh is surrounded by reversed runes, one is
                          being counseled to maintain one's current endeavor. Delay
                          and obstacles may be difficult, but success will eventually
                          follow if patience is practiced (Peschel, 35).

                          Reversed Position - Feuh reversed usually indicates that
                          unless one alters current actions or attitudes, one will likely
                          experience a material or emotional loss. The surrounding
                          runes will offer more information, for instance, if reversed
                          Feuh is surrounded by positive runes, one is likely dealing
                          with short term obstacles and delays and the loss may be
                          only temporary. A full negative reading (all runes reversed),
                          however, is more serious, and may indicate that the
                          emotional or material loss is for good.

                          Take heart when Feuh is reversed. One should be careful
                          not to make matters worse by making further financial
                          commitments at this time. Patience will heal the frustrations,
                          and help lower the obstacles in one's path (Peschel, 36).

 URUZ - wild ox; the aurochs

                          Upright Position - [Earth element] Uruz is a vital untamed
                          source of energy. Its traditional meaning, the Aurochs, was
                          a species of ferocious wild oxen that once roamed the
                          moorlands. Uruz's energy is raw, uninhibited and wild,
                          differing greatly to the domesticated energy found in it
                          neighbor Feuh (cattle).

                          Uruz embodies one's vital impulse "to be." The ultimate
                          primitive instinct that overcomes all forces of destruction by
                          reforming itself into new patterns. It teaches one how to
                          survive and endure against all odds through its energy of
                          courage, perseverance and timely aggression.

                          Exhibiting the aggressive energy of the aurochs is extremely
                          powerful and can become destructive very quickly.
                          Bringing these forces under the control of the will is the
                          goal, for then, that energy can be transformed into an
                          undiluted source of creative power (Aswynn, 15-16).

                          Uruz usually expresses a major change in one's spiritual or
                          physical process. One may experience, for instance, an
                          emotional upheaval that brings out aggression, yet makes
                          an emotional cleansing and healing possible, or one may
                          experience a resurgence in physical health.

                          Reversed Position - When Uruz is reversed, one may be
                          experiencing a lack of motivation, or weakness in one's
                          own will power. Other times, Uruz reversed indicates that
                          good opportunities have been passed by because one has
                          not had the courage or self-confidence to deal with the
                          risks involved. In a mainly negative rune cast, it would be
                          wise to pass up new opportunities. One does not contain
                          the necessary energy to move forward at this time
                          (Peschel, 39).

THURISAZ - thorn; the giants

                          Upright Position - [Fire element] Thurisaz has references
                          to the mighty Hammer of Thor and as the name implies, the
                          piercing sting of the thorn. Its traditional association to "the
                          giants" and the god Thor represents its two fold meaning:
                          the forces of chaos and the keeper of those forces
                          (Aswynn, 17).

                          Thurisaz stands on the borderline of the subconscious and
                          conscious, and in it's negative form, the shadow of the
                          subconscious. If its energy can be tapped and brought into
                          the conscious, Thurisaz can be very helpful. If repressed
                          and left unacknowledged, it can become very negative by
                          manifesting itself into destructive behavioral patterns
                          (Aswynn, 19).

                          The difficulty with upright Thurisaz in a reading is
                          understanding whether it's positive or negative forces are in
                          action. One should try to identify if its active forces are
                          being directed outward or if its passive forces are being
                          directed inward. Look to the surrounding runes for
                          assistance at this time. (Aswynn, 18).

                          Reversed Position - As mentioned above, Thurisaz
                          upright embodies both positive and negative energy. This
                          Rune does not have clear cut upright and reversal
                          meanings. A possible meaning of Thurisaz reversed is that
                          of blocked creative energy or inhibiting forces within the
                          unconscious that serve to constrain or restrict the individual
                          (Aswynn, 20).

                          It may also indicate an unwillingness of heeding another's
                          advice. Moving forward now may result in worse
                          repercussions than when in an upright position. One is quite
                          possibly deceiving oneself at this time. Use great caution
                          and be careful not to make a current situation worse
                          (Peschel, 42).

ANSUZ - language; communication

                          Upright Position - [Air element] Ansuz embodies the
                          principals of order, reason, consciousness, and
                          communication. Language is vital here, yet is only one
                          expression of communication. Its traditional meaning of "a
                          god," implies the ruler over these conscious principals.

                          Preceding Ansuz in the Futhark is Thurisaz, and the two
                          forces work in opposition as well as conjunction, much like
                          Yin and Yang. For Ansuz represents the release of the
                          individual from the restrictive barriers of the subconscious
                          while Thurisaz represents the perpetuation and agitation of
                          these barriers (Aswynn 24-25).

                          When Ansuz appears in a reading, one can expect to
                          acquire wisdom, either through advice from an outside
                          source or by acquiring it oneself. Ansuz is the messenger
                          rune, and it asks that one pay attention to the signals being
                          received at this time. Chance and trickery may play a role
                          here, such as a message delivered by an unsuspecting
                          person. More likely however, the message will be
                          delivered within the work place, such as during a meeting,
                          or by someone wise, such as an elder. Watch all types of
                          interactions carefully at this time. The advice given now will
                          be wise and honest, bearing much weight on one's current
                          situation. Heed it, it may help solve one's dilemma
                          (Peschel, 43-43).

                          Reversed Position - Ansuz reversed means much the
                          opposite. One may be subjected to many sorts of failed
                          communications at this time, whether of a relationship or
                          business nature. It counsels one to be careful when listening
                          to outside sources for advice. Outside sources may in fact
                          be the source of interference at this time. It also may imply
                          a misuse of knowledge on a personal or academic level, or
                          the refusal on one's part to learn from past lessons
                          (Peschel, 44-45).

RAIDO - riding; chariot

                          Upright Position - [Air element] The traditional meaning
                          of Raido is riding or journey. Riding indicates the creating
                          or directing of movement, such as taking charge of a new
                          situation or being able to direct a course of action. Journey,
                          indicates travel in both a literal and allegorical sense. A
                          journey for pleasure or education, or a journey into the
                          soul. As the rune that symbolizes both leadership and
                          guidance, Raido offers sound advice in a reading.

                          Ideas inherent in Raido are freedom, moral consciousness,
                          and the ability to distinguish right from wrong and act with
                          courage. For one to be in charge of one's own life by
                          exercising control over external and internal forces and by
                          directing one's own path, is a mark of "riding" as opposed
                          to being ridden (Aswynn, 26-28).

                          If Raido is found amongst negative runes, one should be
                          careful about following the counsel of others or embarking
                          on the new path without the correct preparation. In
                          particular, if found near reversed Algiz, Raido may indicate
                          that the one is about to become the "ridden one" (Peschel,

                          Reversed Position - Reversed Raido may be seen as a
                          warning. It indicates "this is the wrong path" and counsels
                          one to not move down it. Outside forces may be
                          dominating one at this time, and the more one gives them
                          leverage and control, the more one loses one's own power
                          (Aswynn, 28).

                          Reversed Raido may also indicate that one must undertake
                          a journey for unexpected reasons, such as to visit a sick
                          relative. Delays and confusion may characterize travels at
                          this time. One's passage may not be safe, and postponing
                          plans until a later time may be wise (Peschel, 48).

KENAZ - torch; opening (corresponds to Blum's KANO)

                          Upright Position - [Fire element] The traditional meaning
                          of Kenaz is torch or light, symbolizing intellectual
                          knowledge and consciousness. "To know" or "to be able to
                          know" is the essence in Kenaz, as well the ability "to pass"
                          the knowledge on to others. Also symbolized in the torch
                          of Kenaz is creative inspiration and the ability maintain a
                          concentrative effort.

                          On a psychological level, insight into one's consciousness
                          and trusting one's intuition is represented by Kenaz. In
                          combination with Raido, which is the Rune that directs
                          one's path, Kenaz will shed light on the path, showing the
                          individual the way (Aswynn, 33-34).

                          When found in a rune cast, Kenaz may indicate that things
                          are "lighting or opening up." What was previously dark, is
                          lighted by Kenaz. One may experience a renewed sense of
                          clarity and concentrative determination. New endeavors
                          are ready to be taken on as well as new relationships.

                          Reversed Position - Kenaz reversed indicates a shroud
                          has fallen or that the light has darkened around a situation
                          or relationship. One's vision may be unfocused or lost
                          altogether. Reversed Kenaz calls on one to let go of that
                          past, for that way of being is no longer valid and the
                          penalty of not facing up consciously will result in a lost
                          opportunity (Blum, 119).

                          If found amongst delay runes, Kenaz reversed may act to
                          block all forms of progress and create much personal
                          anxiety. If found with Nauthiz or reversed Nauthiz,
                          reversed Kenaz may reveal that a partnership is coming to
                          and end, especially if this partnership is of a romantic
                          nature (Peschel, 51).

GEBO - the gift; partnership

                          Upright Position - [Air element] The traditional meaning
                          of Gebo is "gift." The equal and opposite forces joined in
                          Gebo represent the reconciliation or integration of these
                          forces. Giving, receiving and preserving the equilibrium is at
                          issue here. Receiving Gebo in a reading usually heralds a
                          time of fortuitous outcomes, and one should be grateful, yet
                          remain mindful of the responsibilities involved (Aswynn,

                          In matters of romance, Gebo may indicate the beginning of
                          a new partnership or a further commitment in an already
                          established partnership, such as marriage. It may also
                          appear to remind those in established relationships that the
                          union "is the gift". It is delicately held together by each
                          individual's unique identity, sense of sacredness and
                          potential growth. The recognition and honoring of this
                          separateness is of utter importance in keeping the energies
                          joined and balanced.

                          Gebo works similarly in matters of business by indicating
                          that new partnerships may be forming or that established
                          partnerships may be cemented further by legal agreements
                          or contracts (Peschel, 52).

                          In both instances, the drawing of boundaries in some
                          respect is usually at issue as well. The honoring of these the
                          agreements and boundaries are critical in keeping the
                          forces in equilibrium.

                          On a spiritual level, Gebo represents the mystical union of
                          the Self and the higher consciousness. Through complete
                          giving and complete surrendering of one's own ego to the
                          higher Self, the greatest gift of all may be achieved, the
                          unity of the Self (Aswynn 38).

WUNJO - wish; joy; hope

                          Upright Position - [Earth element] The primary god
                          associated to this rune is Wodan/Odin and Wunjo
                          represents his nature as the fulfiller of wishes. Its traditional
                          meaning is perfection, although many associations have
                          been derived from the German word "wonne," which
                          means joy (Aswynn, 41).

                          Receiving Wunjo in a rune cast is a positive omen that
                          often brings great emotional joy, the fulfillment of wishes
                          and new energy. Wunjo is a Rune of well-being and
                          indicates that the shifts that needed to take place have
                          occurred and one is now free to receive its blessings. This
                          realignment within the self may call one to renounce existing
                          plans or ambitions and Wunjo counsels that it is timely to
                          do so (Blum, 115-116).

                          Wunjo also holds a relationship with creative abilities, as
                          does Kenaz. To artists and others that hold creative
                          abilities as key, Wunjo often expresses a time of great joy
                          in their work (Peschel, 55).

                          Reversed Position - A reversed Wunjo usually indicates
                          the inaccessibility to desired outcomes or one's emotional
                          well-being. One may be experiencing a difficult crisis that is
                          characterized by much unhappiness (Peschel, 55).

                          The surrounding runes show offer some help in discovering
                          the problem areas. If reversed Wunjo is found with Raido,
                          for instance, it may indicate a difficult or unsafe journey
                          (Peschel, 55).

                          Reversed Wunjo counsels one to be cautious at this time
                          and avoid important decision making. Consideration and
                          Deliberation are called for instead.

HAGALAZ - hail; elemental disruption

                          Upright Position - [Water element] The traditional
                          meaning of Hagalaz is hail, and like hail, Hagalaz
                          symbolizes a disruptive element in nature. The disruptive
                          elements of nature are beyond one's is often the
                          case when Hagalaz appears.

                          In a psychological sense, Hagalaz represents the disruptive
                          forces happening in one's unconscious. These forces stem
                          from the past and take the form of unresolved problems,
                          unlearned lessons or repressed memories, that continue to
                          influence one's current behavior patterns. They are likely to
                          cause discomfort and act as a precursor to change
                          (Aswynn, 49-52).

                          When Hagalaz appears in a Rune cast, it indicates
                          disruptions on many levels, and although there is no
                          reversed position, Hagalaz always acts through reversal. It
                          is the "Great Awakener." In one fatal swoop, Hagalaz may
                          act by ripping away one's current understanding and
                          perception of one's reality. At other times, Hagalaz may act
                          by awakening one from a deep slumber, gradually bring
                          one to one's senses.

                          During this time, one's relationships and partnerships may
                          fail. Plans may go awry, and money supplies may become
                          emptied. The only power one can hope to utilize at this
                          time, is one's own inner strength and will (Blum, 128-129).

                          As another Rune of delay, Hagalaz is a solid indication to
                          avoid new starts. Limitations and delays are often imposed
                          by nature and therefore not completely negative. Thus it is
                          important at times to recognize that one does have
                          limitations. The counsel of Hagalaz is to ease back and try
                          to remain content. Attempting to fight against Fate at this
                          time will likely lead to more anguish (Peschel, 58).

NAUTHIZ - need; necessity

                          Upright Position - [Fire element] The traditional meaning
                          of Nauthiz is need or necessity, and its shape resembles the
                          form of two sticks being rubbed together in an effort to
                          create fire.

                          The need that comes from the past may very well place
                          restrictions on the present and future. Nauthiz represents
                          the needs which gnaw on one's sense of self. It is the place
                          where fear and fears of failure reside. If left unattended, the
                          fears will act to constrict one from doing something
                          constructive. This may take the form of constricting one's
                          creativity or one's relationships to others. (Aswynn 54-55).

                          It often indicates a delay, or the passing through a difficult
                          situation. It counsels one to have patience and identify the
                          source of the need. Is it an emotional one that stems from
                          the fear of failure? Or is it a material one, such as the
                          necessity for money? Nauthiz may be indicating that it is
                          time to face up to this fear. One clearly won't be able to
                          enjoy beneficial outcomes until the need has been carefully
                          tended. Taking the time to heal the self is at issue here.

                          Reversed Position - A reversed Nauthiz is even more
                          devastating. One is warned to postpone any current plans,
                          for it is likely that one will be setting off the wrong course
                          of action. Continuing forward at this time will likely lead to
                          failure, despair and quite possibly disaster.

                          If paired with Jera, it may be indicating that one is being
                          called on to make up for past misdeeds. If paired with
                          Hagalaz, the past has really come back to haunt, for a very
                          powerful outside force, such as God, may step in and
                          demand that one does indeed pay (Peschel, 61).

ISA - ice; stillness

                          Upright Position - [Water element] The traditional
                          meaning of Isa is ice. It is the element of water in its
                          densest state, which has been molded to a shape, as
                          opposed to being fluid. The principals represented here are
                          preservation and the resistance of change. It is a necessary
                          force in nature, one that slows the evolutionary process,
                          disabling uninhibited growth (Aswynn, 57).

                          On a psychological level, Isa may represent areas in the
                          unconscious that reveal one's deeply ingrained attitudes or
                          patterns or one's genetic imprint from birth. Changing them
                          may not be possible and attempting to bring them to light
                          isn't really advisable. It is a frustrating influence and usually
                          means that a period of time (or a season) may be involved
                          before moving on is possible (Aswynn, 59).

                          Few things can actively grow in Isa's bleak environment,
                          and one is often called on to perform a personal sacrifice
                          by letting go of old ideas or associations that are
                          perpetuating this situation. During these times, one needs to
                          look inward, for there may be no outside help available.

                          There is nothing wrong with halting at times, Isa is a
                          warning that in this state of "spiritual winter" one is often
                          about to make the wrong choice or has overestimated the
                          amount of energy it will require to move forward. One may
                          only be capable of maintaining at this point.

                          Look carefully at the runes surrounding Isa. Unconscious
                          energies are at work. If the reading is otherwise positive,
                          Isa may indicate only be a short delay. If surrounded by
                          very negative runes, it would be wise to completely stop,
                          for one's efforts will not be rewarded at this time.

 JERA - year; season; harvest

                          Upright Position - [Earth element] The traditional meaning
                          of Jera is year or harvest. It has associations to the
                          divisions of time and of seasons or cycles leading into one
                          another. As the 12th Rune in the Futhark, Jera divides the
                          Futhark and represents the time of one year (Aswynn, 60).

                          Jera is a gentle and hopeful Rune. It is encouraging and
                          implies beneficial outcomes when the cycle has been
                          completed. One may assume that the careful planting has
                          been done and that through careful cultivation, one will
                          succeed. During long periods of cultivation, Jera offers one
                          perseverance and encouragement (Blum, 117).

                          Quick outcomes are not characterized by this Rune, for
                          there is always a period of time involved before the reaping
                          the harvest. One's patience and hard work will be
                          rewarded in the end.

                          If Jera falls within a negative rune cast, it may be indicating
                          that careful cultivation was not done and that delays and
                          difficulties may characterize one's endeavors. Depending
                          upon the runes involved, it may be asking one to traverse
                          back and begin again or to become more diligent in one's
                          current efforts.

                          If paired with Nauthiz or Hagalaz, Jera may be indicating
                          that one's current path is not suited for the individual. It
                          serves as a warning that one may continue ending up back
                          in this same place until the right path has been chosen.

                          As Jera's symbol indicates, what comes around, goes
                          around. It cautions one against speaking ill or acting poorly
                          of others at this time, for that energy may in turn come
                          back in a similar negative fashion (Peschel, 65).

 EIHWAZ - yew tree

                          Upright Position - [All elements] The traditional meaning
                          of Eihwaz is yew, and as the yew tree, Eihwaz represents
                          the Yggdrasil, which contains the melding of life and
                          death...the life giving force that sustains life eternally.

                          In its symbol, the vertical axis in Eihwaz represents the
                          vertical axis of the world tree that connects the three realms
                          of heaven, earth and the underworld. By connecting these
                          three worlds, Eihwaz acts as the communicator and
                          supporting backbone force between them (Thorsson, 44).

                          In historic times, Eihwaz was associated with hunting and
                          its daring nature. It is a Rune of strong assertive and
                          defensive powers, possibly giving one the necessary drive
                          to take a blind leap of faith into the void. Action, endurance
                          and persistence are also characteristics of Eihwaz. If in
                          response to a question about a new venture, Eihwaz
                          counsels one to take the risk now. One has the necessary
                          courage and protection to act swiftly and move forward
                          successfully (Aswynn, 63-65).

                          Eihwaz also informs one that through foresight and right
                          action, difficulties may be avoidable. If doubtful situations
                          are on the forefront, it may be wise to anticipate problems
                          now that may occur in the future. The ability to foresee
                          consequences is definitely a sign of a defensive and
                          powerful thinker. At this time, Eihwaz puts one on notice
                          that problems can be turned into victories if caught in time.

                          If paired with delay runes, Eihwaz counsels to hold firm, for
                          one's influences may not be felt at this time. Enduring a
                          delay might even prove beneficial. If paired with Ansuz or
                          Jera, Eihwaz may help lead to the uncovering of a matter
                          that has remained hidden for some time (Peschel, 66-67).

 PERTHO - womb; hidden

                          Upright Position - [Water element] The traditional
                          meaning of Pertho is relatively undeterminable, "dice cup"
                          and "secret" have been offered up, yet most feel that
                          Pertho's nature is of something secret, something hidden.
                          Earlier, it was stated the Pertho is the opening of Berkana,
                          the birth of what Berkana holds as a promise...The process
                          of birth is mysterious, as are the mysteries that surround the
                          protective layers of the womb. In either case, Pertho
                          resembles a container of sorts. Both embody the concepts
                          of remaining secret only to be thrust out at a later time...and
                          that of fate (Aswynn, 66).

                          Its essence is water, which represents areas beneath the
                          conscious, beneath our knowing, yet possibly not beneath
                          our feeling. Pertho represents the hidden potentials within
                          oneself, talents which have not yet manifested.

                          In a reading Pertho may reveal a hidden aspect of oneself,
                          or signify a secret finally coming to light. Look to the
                          surrounding runes for assistance at this time. Receiving
                          Pertho in response to a direction question, however,
                          indicates that what is hidden should remain so. It is not
                          timely, leave it alone (Aswynn, 69-70).

                          Reversed Position - A reversed Pertho may indicate just
                          the opposite. A death of some sort, as opposed to a birth.
                          Energy flowing backwards and becoming blocked, instead
                          of forwards into free space (Aswynn, 69).

                          Its usually a sign of congestion in both an emotional and
                          relationship sense. Disappointments on all levels may arise
                          at this time and one is cautioned not to expect too much.
                          Reversed Pertho indicates a testing of one's character, for
                          not all obstructions are negative, they can be seen as
                          challenges as well (Blum, 104).

 ALGIZ - protection; elk sedge

                          Upright Position - [Air element] The traditional meaning
                          of Algiz is protection, and its shape resembles that of the
                          elk sedge or splayed hand. It also resembles the branches
                          of the Yggdrasil stretching into the sky, or man reaching up
                          in an attempt to communicate with a higher consciousness.

                          As a symbol of protection, Algiz may represent a time
                          when unwanted influences venture into one's newly marked
                          territory. With this rune comes challenges and new
                          opportunities, always leading one into new territories.
                          Watch for the rustle in the sedge grass Algiz warns, it is on
                          your side, serving as a shelter or shield while entering into
                          new ventures (Blum, 111).

                          On a spiritual level, Algiz acts as one's guide towards a
                          higher level of consciousness. One may experience a
                          cleansing of the soul at this time, for Algiz acts by clearing
                          out old energies, creating a space so that new energies may
                          flow in its place (Gundarsson, 115).

                          Reversed Position - Algiz reversed shows signs of
                          personal vulnerability and sacrifices without gain. It is likely
                          that one is being misled or taken advantage of by others. It
                          also may indicate that one is being deceived by oneself.
                          Through built up subconscious fears, one's clarity and
                          rational is blocked. Decisions made now, will likely be
                          based on fear or lack of experience instead of honesty, and
                          Algiz reversed warns against making important decisions at
                          this time.

                          Failing health may also be indicated by reversed Algiz, on
                          both emotional and physical levels. Care and thoughtfulness
                          is called for now. One should not attempt to take on more
                          burdens or add to the burdens others are carrying (Blum,

 SOWULO - sun; wholeness

                          Upright Position - [Air element] The traditional meaning
                          of Sowulo is sun, which was regarded as a life-giving,
                          feminine force in ancient times. Its symbol of two equal
                          halves represents the progress of the sun's movement
                          throughout the year by the division of the summer and
                          winter solstices.

                          Found complementary to Raido on the Rune-ring, Sowulo
                          represents the higher spiritual force that directs an
                          individual along one's path, while Raido represents the act
                          of directing or controlling. By acting as the higher will,
                          Sowulo has associations with spiritual guidance and
                          leadership. It is the essence of one's sense of self and self
                          worth (Aswynn, 74-76).

                          Sowulo also represents the wholeness one achieves by
                          integrating the self with the higher Self. Therefore, the
                          impulse towards self-realization is introduced by this Rune,
                          the particular "life path" that one must follow. Becoming
                          conscious of one's own true essence and bringing it into
                          form is at issue here, for after all, what one is striving to
                          become, is by nature what one already is.

                          Sowulo's combination of both introverted and extroverted
                          energies act to supply an abundant source of energy at this
                          time. If one finds oneself retreating in the face of pressing
                          external demands, however, know that it is a timely journey
                          inward to gather strength (Blum, 139-140).

                          There is no reversed position for Sowulo but there is
                          danger in its power to strike suddenly, as its shape also
                          represents lightening. Usually this "leveling" occurs in
                          Sowulo's effort to sweep away the old in preparation for
                          something greater (Aswynn, 76).

 TEIWAZ - sky god; the warrior

                          Upright Position - [Air element] Teiwaz, its traditional
                          meaning, the sky god Tyr, who was a god motivated by a
                          sense of justice, governing over legal and social issues
                          (Aswynn, 80).

                          Symbolized by a spear, the weapon of the sky god, Teiwaz
                          represents the principals of justice, bravery and victory
                          over competitors. The shape also illustrates the "single
                          course of action" embodied in Teiwaz, giving one the
                          power to be extremely focused and make decisive,
                          strategic decisions (Gundarsson, 123).

                          Receiving an upright Teiwaz is a very good sign to one who
                          may be faced with a difficult conflict. It indicates that the
                          directive energy necessary to fight the battle, whether it's a
                          legal or personal one, is ready and available (Aswynn, 81).

                          In response to relationship questions, Teiwaz indicates that
                          the relationship and timing are beneficial and likely to
                          succeed. One should move forward, for the bond is real
                          and there is much work to be done together (Blum, 121).

                          Reversed Position - A reversed Teiwaz may indicate
                          failures on a competitive level and a loss of trust or lack of
                          fidelity on a relationship level. Energy has been impeded in
                          some way through ill-timed action or otherwise, and one's
                          life force may feel torn down or exposed. Issues of trust,
                          loyalty and authenticity are usually at stake here, and the
                          ability to honestly examine one's motives is critical.

                          In relationship matters, reversed Teiwaz may indicate
                          powerful misunderstandings and difficulties in
                          communications. The possibility of resolution can usually be
                          found in the surrounding runes (Blum, 121-122).

 BERKANA - birch tree; fertility

                          Upright Position - [Earth element] Berkana has long been
                          associated with the birch tree. The birch tree does not bear
                          fruit, yet its branches touch the heavens...The significance
                          of not bearing, yet touching divinity are important here, for
                          it is the "processes" of gestation and creativity that are
                          represented within Berkana, as well as their association to
                          the divine (Aswynn, 82).

                          Receiving Berkana in a reading indicates the creation of
                          energy into new forms. Berkana holds the promise of "what
                          will come to be." This could be as literal as the birth of a
                          child or the birth of a creative idea. Growth is occurring
                          and new beginnings are often being formed at this time.

                          Upright and surrounded by positive runes, Berkana is very
                          positive and usually leads to very tangible results. If
                          surrounded by negative runes, is may indicate that the
                          success will be short lived (Peschel, 80).

                          Reversed Position - A reversed Berkana usually signifies
                          domestic problems or problems with a person that one
                          considers very close. Its presence frequently indicates
                          anxiety about that close person. Alone in an otherwise
                          positive rune cast, Berkana does not represent
                          irreconcilable differences, but merely serves as warning

                          The warning may be that the ground has not been carefully
                          cultivated. The growth, therefore, can not take place or will
                          be delayed until proper cultivation occurs. New beginnings
                          now will not prove beneficial, in fact if one attempts one at
                          this time, it is likely that the current situation will continue to
                          recycle itself until the careful cultivation occurs.

 EHWAZ - horse; movement

                          Upright Position - [Earth element] The traditional meaning
                          of Ehwaz is horse and most runologists agree that it
                          represents a pair of horses. Like Raido, Ehwaz deals with
                          movement and travel, but more specifically to the vehicle of
                          travel, and as Raido represents the ability to take control of
                          situations, Ehwaz represents the ability to adapt to new
                          situations (Aswynn, 85).

                          Receiving Ehwaz indicates change, one that often involves
                          travel or even a physical change in one's dwelling place. It
                          is a Rune of shifts and adjustments that leads one to steady
                          growth and gradual development. Relationships and
                          Businesses must undergo these shifts and adjustments in an
                          effort to grow and prosper. Ehwaz will provide the
                          adaptation and cooperation necessary at this time of
                          growth (Blum, 125).

                          Reversed Position - Reversed Ehwaz alone in a rune cast
                          doesn't carry a significant negative weight. In fact it may
                          continue to hold its upright meaning, for instance if paired
                          with Laguz, reversed Ehwaz may indicate a very far
                          journey. If paired with Raido, the journey may be short,
                          but one of pleasure (Peschel, 83).

                          If found amongst negative runes, Ehwaz reversed often
                          indicates a loss of some sort. It may be that a relationship
                          or partnership has ended, or that one feels an opportunity
                          has been missed.

                          The opportunity may not have been right, for not all
                          possibilities are appropriate. Ehwaz counsels one to remain
                          steadfast and not implement any new changes at this time.
                          What is timely to one's nature needs consideration here, as
                          does the belief that the right opportunities will at the right
                          time (Blum, 126).

 MANNAZ - humankind; the self

                          Upright Position - [Air element] The traditional meaning
                          of Mannaz is mankind or humankind. It is being within the
                          self, it is knowing thyself, it is from the point from which all
                          other relationships flow. And at the same time, this rune
                          speaks of mankind's ancestors and progenitors, the
                          inheritance we all can share.

                          The nature of human interdependency is key in Mannaz.
                          People that share the same environments are connected
                          and dependent on one another. This rune symbolizes the
                          cooperative effort people share in exerting the common
                          good of the tribe (Aswynn, 89-90).

                          Often this rune indicates that one may receive cooperative
                          aid or good advise in dealing with the problem at hand. If
                          Mannaz is referring to an individual, it may indicate that one
                          is too absorbed by the problem and has made it seem
                          much larger than necessary. If that is the case, the time to
                          seek honest outside advice is now (Peschel, 84).

                          Modesty, devotion and patience is counseled here.
                          Demanding merit or focusing on outcomes is unlikely to be
                          beneficial at this time. Instead, attempt to experience the
                          true presence by doing the task for the task's sake (Blum

                          Reversed Position - Mannaz reversed usually indicates
                          that one is alone in the current situation, that cooperative
                          aid from others is unavailable. This interference may have
                          come from an individual, a group, or from within oneself.
                          Mannaz calls on one to turn within and discover the true
                          enemy of one's progress at this time. For the outside enemy
                          is often a reflection of what one may be unable or unwilling
                          to accept as coming from within (Blum, 94).

 LAGUZ - lake; sea; intuition

                          Upright Position - [Water element] The traditional
                          meaning of Laguz is lake, water or sea. It embodies the
                          conducting & mediating principles of water, as well as the
                          principles of the concentrative imagination and intuitive
                          knowledge.  The forces of mutual attractions have also been
                          attributed to this rune, most likely due to the association of
                          the seas ebbing and flowing tides (Aswynn, 93-94).

                          When Laguz appears in a rune cast, it usually indicates that
                          unseen powers are actively working to shape and connect.
                          Careers, partnerships and emotions are all subject to the
                          natural ebb and flow which allows new shapes to take
                          form. Laguz draws one towards union and merging, and a
                          closeness to one's own intuition. Attuning to one's own
                          rhythms is important here, and Laguz often signals that it is
                          time to realign, revalue and reorganize the self (Blum, 127).

                          If seen with Pertho, Laguz may indicate that one is being
                          guided by a higher conscious or psychic abilities, which
                          may come in the form of a prophetic dream to warn one of
                          a potentially dangerous situation or bad offer. Listening to
                          one's intuition now is both timely and beneficial (Peschel,

                          Reversed Position - Receiving Laguz reversed indicates
                          that one has been or will be mislead by one's own intuition.
                          This failure to draw upon one's own instinct may have
                          placed one in a situation that is beyond one's aptitude.

                          It is a rune that signifies a temptation into doing the wrong
                          thing, or "taking the easy way out" of a situation. Either
                          way, it will lead to trouble and likely leave one feeling much
                          anguish. Unless paired with delay runes, Laguz counsels
                          one to get out of these situations immediately (Peschel

 INGUZ - the god ing; new beginnings

                          Upright Position - [Water and Earth elements] The
                          traditional meaning of Inguz is the god Ing or the Hero god.
                          It is a rune of fertility, and if one were to add an upright and
                          reversed "v" to the top and bottom of Inguz, as it
                          sometimes is depicted, one would see a resemblance to the
                          DNA chain. In this sense, Inguz is also regarded as a rune
                          of progeny, representing the "son of" and "inherited genes"
                          (Aswynn, 96).

                          Inguz often appears in reading to indicate the completion of
                          a cycle and a progression to the next. It signifies the need
                          for one to complete a cycle, and offers one the strength
                          required to do so. Completing projects or clarifying one's
                          state of mind is absolutely necessary now, for the ground
                          must be fertilized before new growth can occur. When a
                          cycle ends, a new beginning always follows and Inguz
                          marks a time of joyful deliverance into a new life (Blum,

                          If obstructions have characterized one's past, Inguz
                          represents an emergence from these obstructions, and one
                          may experience a release of old burdens, such as anxiety
                          or tension.

                          Inguz may also indicate that the time has come to outgrow
                          the past. Old behaviors and beliefs may not have a place in
                          this new life and Inguz counsels that it is time to leave them
                          behind (Blum, 108).

                          Overall, however, Inguz is a positive rune, and receiving it
                          is a sign of good fortuitous outcomes. It often acts as a
                          precursor to a very important event in one's life, like the
                          birth of a child, a new job or a new love interest. Its
                          presence signifies one is on the verge of new
                          beginnings...(Peschel, 91).

 DAGAZ - day; transformation

                          Upright Position - [Fire element] The traditional meaning
                          of Dagaz is day, and is usually associated with the dawning
                          of the new day, when dark leads into light; when the sun is
                          at its zenith; or twilight, when light leads into dark. It
                          indicates the end of a cycle and the beginning of the next,
                          and this change will be explosive, which contrasts greatly
                          with Jera, for Jera indicates a gentle change that usually
                          involves a long period of time or season (Aswynn,

                          Expect a dramatic transformation when receiving Dagaz.
                          This may come in the form of an attitude or circumstances
                          within a situation taking a giant u-turn. Whether internal or
                          external, the transition will be radical and force one into a
                          new way of living or seeing one's life.

                          Complete trust is at issue here, and one may be asked to
                          leap into the abyss blinded and empty handed. The time for
                          one's initiation into the next cycle is now (Blum, 135).

                          Although complex and powerful in its nature by its
                          association with the radical exchange of forces, Dagaz is
                          positive and often introduces a time of success and
                          prosperity. It has no reversed position, and is usually a sign
                          of great strength and increased growth.

                          If found in a negative reading, the fire of Dagaz may
                          dissolve the negative aspects, especially when found
                          amongst delay runes. One will be able to overcome the
                          obstacles and move towards victory. In response to a
                          problematic situation, Dagaz amongst negative runes may
                          be trying to pointing out that one has the ability to turn the
                          situation around (Peschel, 92-93).

 OTHILA - inheritance; homeland

                          Upright Position - [Earth element] Othila's literal meaning
                          can be traced back to the German word "adel" and Dutch
                          word "edel," both meaning nobel. It appears as the
                          combination of Gebo and Inguz, and can be interpreted as
                          the "gift of Ing." (Aswynn, 99).

                          As the rune of inheritance and possessions, one must look
                          to understand both concepts: Inherited powers and
                          inherited possessions.

                          Inherited powers may be the wisdom passed down from
                          one's ancestors, that center that binds an individual in a soul
                          sense. These powers are mysterious and Othila serves to
                          strengthen them. It may call one back to one's homeland or
                          roots, or cause one to experience that feeling of "coming to
                          know" one's identity. When found in conjunction with
                          Mannaz and Ansuz, this is especially true. (Gundarsson,

                          Inherited possessions usually take the form of property
                          rights or if representing money, the form of a pension.
                          Othila also helps solve legal questions that may surround
                          the possessions being passed down (Peschel, 94).

                          Reversed Position - On a spiritual level, Othila reversed
                          signals a detachment to one's roots or inherited powers, or
                          that they have been left unattended and are now weak. On
                          a physical level, it may mean a delay in gaining immobile
                          wealth, and that outside help is unavailable. If surrounded
                          by reversed runes, a continued rush may cause irreparable
                          damage to the situation. Thoroughness is called for here,
                          and the examination of one's current motives and attitudes
                          (Peschel, 95).

ODIN -- The Unknowable, destiny
                          Blank is the end, blank the beginning. This is the rune of
                          total trust and should be taken as exciting evidence of your
                          most immediate contact with your own true destiny which, time
                          and again, rises like the phoenix from the ashes of what we
                          call fate.  The blank rune can portent death.  But that death
                          is usually symbolic, and may relate to any part of your life as
                          you are living it now.  Relinquishing control is the ultimate
                          challenge for the Spiritual Warrior.

                          Here the Unknowable informs you that it is in motion in your life. 
                          In that blankness is held undiluted potential.  At the same time
                          both pregnant and empty, it comprehends the totality of being,
                          all that is to be actualized.  And, if indeed there are
                          "matters hidden by the gods" you need only remember: What beckons
                          is the creative power of the unknown.

                          Drawing this rune brings to surface your deepest fears:  Will I fail? 
                          Will I be abandoned? Will it all be taken away?  And yet your highest
                          good, your truest possibilities and all your fertile dreams are held
                          within that blankness.

                          This rune represents the path of karma -- the sum total of your action
                          and of their consequences.  At the same time, this rune teaches that the
                          very debts of old karma shift and evolve as you shift and evolve. 
                          Nothing is predestined: The obstacles of your past can become the gateways
                          that lead to new beginnings.  (Blum, pages 133-134.)
~from Maat's Book of Shadows